The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the inhabitants of the Americas before the arrival of the European settlers in the 15th century, and the ethnic groups who now identify themselves with those peoples. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers —and many, especially in the Amazon basin , still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, city-states, chiefdoms , states , kingdoms and empires. Some had varying degrees of knowledge of engineering, architecture, mathematics, astronomy, writing, physics, medicine, planting and irrigation, geology, mining, sculpture and goldsmithing.
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In the United States, violence against indigenous women has reached unprecedented levels on tribal lands and in Alaska Native villages. More than 4 in 5 American Indian and Alaska Native women have experienced violence, and more than 1 in 2 have experienced sexual violence. Alaska Native women continue to suffer the highest rate of forcible sexual assault and have reported rates of domestic violence up to 10 times higher than in the rest of the United States. Though available data is limited, the number of missing and murdered American Indian and Alaska Native women and the lack of a diligent and adequate federal response is extremely alarming to indigenous women, tribal governments, and communities. On some reservations, indigenous women are murdered at more than ten times the national average.
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James Plyant in GenealogyMagazine. The magazine has made those documents free to download. You can access the article and downloads here.
Some Native Americans in the United States have had difficulty with the use of alcohol. A survey of death certificates from to showed that deaths among Native Americans due to alcohol are about four times as common as in the general U. Native American and Native Alaskan youth are far more likely to experiment with alcohol at a younger age than non-Native youth. Historically, those Native American tribes who manufactured alcoholic drinks used them and other mind-altering substances in ritual settings and rarely for personal enjoyment, therefore alcohol dependence was largely unknown when European contact was made.