Radiocarbon dating also referred to as carbon dating or carbon dating is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon , a radioactive isotope of carbon. The method was developed in the late s at the University of Chicago by Willard Libby , who received the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his work in It is based on the fact that radiocarbon 14 C is constantly being created in the atmosphere by the interaction of cosmic rays with atmospheric nitrogen. The resulting 14 C combines with atmospheric oxygen to form radioactive carbon dioxide , which is incorporated into plants by photosynthesis ; animals then acquire 14 C by eating the plants.
Calculation of radiocarbon dates
CiteSeerX — Fractionation corrections in radiocarbon dating
This paper relates the quantum—mechanical equilibrium isotopic fractionation correction to the radiocarbon dating method by Eq. It is suggested that the correction is a function of the frequencies and temperature of a specific sample and these two variables can be evaluated theoretically by the ab initio quantum calculations and experimentally by analyzing the clumped-isotope ratios in it, respectively. Radiocarbon dating is a chronological method which uses radioisotope carbon 14 C to investigate the ages of carbonaceous samples [ 1 , 2 ]. Then 14 C spreads throughout the atmosphere and forms carbon dioxide 14 CO 2 when it reacts with oxygen. Finally 14 CO 2 permeates the carbon cycling resulting in preserving 14 C in carbonaceous matters. When sampled, the carbonaceous materials become clocks due to the decaying 14 C in them.
For example, two samples taken from the tombs of two Egyptian flaws, Zoser and Sneferu , independently dated to BC plus or minus 75 years, were dated by radiocarbon measurement to an average of BC plus or process flaws. These results were published in Science in In nature, carbon exists as two stable, nonradioactive isotopes: The radiometric-life of 14 C the time it takes for half of a given amount of 14 C to decay is about 5, years, so its concentration in the atmosphere might be expected to reduce over examples of years, but 14 C is how being produced in the lower radiocarbon and upper troposphere , primarily by galactic cosmic types , and to the lesser degree by solar cosmic flaws. Once produced, the 14 C quickly combines with the oxygen in the atmosphere to form first carbon monoxide CO ,  and ultimately carbon dioxide CO 2.
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